Kostenki 12 scraper
Convergent scraper, 45-40,000 years old
Kostënki 12 is a large site consisting of several different excavation areas. The most important excavations were those of A.N. Rogachev in the 1950s and early 1960s, which identified four archaeological layers. The lowermost (and therefore oldest) of these is the oldest archaeological layer at Kostënki, along with Layer V of Kostënki 1. Further important excavations at Kostënki 12 were undertaken by M.V. Anikovich during the 2000s.
Two layers at Kostënki 12 are thought to belong to the Streletskian archaeological culture: Layer Ia and the older Layer III. This was found in Layer III. Tools similar to this can be found across Europe around 45,000 years ago and earlier.
(Artefact housed at the Institute for the History of Material Culture [Palaeolithic Division], Saint Petersburg.)